The Economist 100本 英和訳マラソン 1

素材:Let a million factories rise



Before Myanmar becomes like Thailand, it will have to become like Bangladesh



PREPARATIONS for the first section of the Thilawa Special Economic Zone (SEZ) included clearing nearly 400 hectares of land and building roads to a nearby port.



The industrial park is scheduled to open in the middle of next year and some of the 22 companies set to move in will begin building their factories by the end of the month.



Yet the most immediate beneficiary will not be Myanmar’s economy.



Takashi Yanai, head of the Burmese-Japanese joint venture developing Thilawa, jokes that the monastery sitting in a finger of forest jutting into the park has much to gain.




“You cannot touch a monastery in this country,” says Mr Yanai.



With every corporate groundbreaking will come a donation to the monks that may one day pay for a grand golden stupa.



If the monks represent the country’s past, the tenants of Thilawa and the two other SEZs in the works (see map) are bets on its future.




//in the works〈米話〉進行中で

Thilawa, the furthest advanced of the three, will employ 70,000 workers when running at full tilt, turning out food, consumer products and construction materials for the domestic market, as well as export-oriented goods such as shoes,car parts and garments.



//at full filt 全速力で--->全面開業した時には

//turn out 生産する

President Thein Sein came to power in 2011 with the promise of reforms to reconnect Myanmar to the global economy.



//came to power:政権の座を獲得した

Since then the optimists have dreamed of supermarkets and fast-food outlets on every street and of mobile technology allowing the country to “leapfrog” development stages to draw level with Thailand, or even Singapore.



//mobile technology:モバイル技術


But its economic future depends on low-skilled workers churning out labour-intensive goods for export.



//labour-intensive goods:労働集約財

//churn out:大量生産する

Before it can aspire to Thailand’s level of industrial development it should aim to be a hub for low-cost manufacturing like its western neighbour, Bangladesh.



//industrial development:産業開発

//its western neighbour:西側の隣国である


//low-cost manufacturing:低コスト製造

Investors are right to dream, though.



Myanmar sits between the massive markets of China and India and also gives Thailand a quick westward route to the sea.



//quick route:近道

According to the McKinsey Global Institute (MGI), a think-tank, by 2025 more than half the world’s consumers with incomes above $10 a day will live within a five-hour flight of Myanmar.



It abounds in arable land, water and natural resources—it is richly endowed with oil, natural gas and precious stones such as jade, rubies and sapphires.



Thailand’s labour force is ageing, shrinking and getting more expensive; Myanmar’s is cheap and young, and is benefiting from the return of some of the 3m-5m Burmese

working abroad.


* タイの労働力人口は高齢化し、縮小し、人件費が高くなっている。これに対してミャンマー労働力人口は安くて若く、国外で働く300万~500万人のミャンマー国民の一部の帰国によって恩恵を受けている。

Jasmine Thazin Aung left in 2003 to study finance in Singapore because she saw no opportunity at home;



now she heads the Myanmar office of PricewaterhouseCoopers, an accountancy firm.



She says that her three room-mates in Singapore, all Burmese women studying finance, have also returned to the country.



After several false starts the government appears committed to creating a market economy where new businesses might thrive.



//After several false starts :何度か出だしでつまずいた後

Between 2010, when the country held its first general election in nearly two decades, and 2013 foreign direct investment almost tripled, rising from $901m to $2.6 billion.



//foreign investment:外国投資

//foreign direct investment:外国直接投資

A few foreign banks have been licensed to operate on a limited scale—but broader financial liberalisation is in the works.



//on a limited scale:限られた規模で

//broader :大掛かりな

The economy is forecast to grow by 7.8% this year and next; commodity exports are rising, as is production of oil and gas.



//commodity exports:商品輸出

The central bank is now formally independent of the finance ministry; it is expanding its staff and improving its capacity to conduct monetary policy.




There is still plenty to do. The most recent of the World Bank’s annual reports on the ease of doing business puts Myanmar 182nd out of 189 economies.



//ease of doing business:事業/ビジネスのしやすさ

//annual reports:年次報告書

Regulatory uncertainty is a huge problem but archaic laws are getting some attention at last:



Regulatory uncertainty//規制の不確定性

Myanmar’s Companies Act, which sets the rules for corporate activity, was enacted by the British in 1914 and left untouched until this year, when the Asian Development Bank began helping the government to update it.

企業の活動のためのルールを制定するMyanmar’s Companies Actは1914年にイギリスによる制定されてから、アジア開発銀行が政府に更新を促すまでずっと手付かずであった。


//the Asian Development Bank :アジア開発銀行

In time such updates will reduce the need to “feel your way through the legal and financial system,” says John Hamilton, who heads the Myanmar office of CEA Projects, a logistics company.

やがてこのような更新は”法的及び金融システムを経てから行う”必要性を減少させるだろう、と物流会社のCEA Projectsミャンマー支社の代表JOHN氏は言う。

* 物流会社CEAプロジェクツのミャンマー支社を率いるジョン・ハミルトン氏は、そうした法の改正はやがて、「法体系、金融システムを手探りで進む」必要性を減らすだろうと指摘する。

//in time:やがては

//feel your way:手探りで進む

Even the most vigorous regulatory scrub-up and revamped central bank will not create a well-trained workforce: that will take years of massive investment in education.





The average Burmese spends just four years at school; the country has a teacher-pupil ratio of one to 30 compared with one to 13 in Malaysia.



As other Asian workforces grew more productive and diverse, Myanmar’s went in the other direction: between 1965 and 2010 the share of Burmese employed in agriculture rose, from 35% to 44%, even as it fell in most of the rest of the continent.


* 他のアジア諸国の労働力人口が生産性と多様性を高める一方で、ミャンマー労働力人口は反対方向に向かった。1965年から2010年にかけて、大陸の大半の国で農業従事者の割合が低下したにもかかわらず、ミャンマーでは35%から44%に上昇した。

Yet that massive agricultural workforce could be put to good use.



The country has 12.3m hectares of farmland, only slightly less than Thailand.



It was once Asia’s biggest rice exporter, yet its agricultural sector remains woefully underproductive.




Most farmers grow small plots of rice, often without machinery or fertiliser.



Soe Tun, head of the Myanmar Farmers’ Association, notes that most rice is organic not by choice but because non-organic farming never reached rural Myanmar.


* ミャンマー農家連盟の代表、ソー・トン氏は、大半のコメが有機米なのは選択の結果ではなく、非有機農業がミャンマーの農村部に行き渡らなかったからだと指摘する。

Even a modest introduction of modern farming methods would have a big impact on farms and the country’s labour productivity as a whole.



It would also free more workers to look for jobs in factories in cities—another strong driver of growth.



MGI found that every 15 percentage point increase in the share of GDP from manufacturing and services is associated with a doubling of GDP per person.



The work in factories and fields may not be glamorous or interesting but people will always need rice, shoes and concrete.



Myanmar’s abundant supply of low-skilled workers need productive jobs if its economy is to shine like the sun reflecting off a golden stupa.


* ミャンマー経済が黄金の仏塔に反射する太陽のように輝くためには、ミャンマーの大勢の未熟練労働者に生産的な仕事が必要なのだ。